Stages Of Play Development In Children

For little children, they see the world through play. Experts would refer to play as the work of children. Play allows the child to discover and to experiment the world around him. Moreover, play has several benefits. One, it builds the child imagination. Two, it Promotes social skills. Three, it develops the child's learning and development. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky, a Soviet psychologist and the founder of cultural-historical psychology, believes that play has a major part in the child's development. From his studies, a child developments abstract meaning separate from the objects in the world. At pee-school age, a piece of wood begins to perform the role of a doll, and a stick becomes a horse.

As children grow and develop, children go through distinct stages of play. It is important that when planning activities for kids, consider how play affects their learning and development. In 1932, Mildred Parten developed the stages of play, each stage is described below.

Unoccupied Play
This is the stage when the child is not engaged in playing and just observing. A child can be simply standing in one spot observing his surroundings.

Solitary
It is also referred to as independent play. In this stage, the child separates himself from others with no reference to what others are engaged to. Experts believe that children at this stage are simply not interested in playing with others because they are ego-centric. Ego-centric is where a person is not able to see a point through another person's perspective. In return, the child individually plays with his toys. Moreover, children between the ages of one and two are very much engrossed with the world around him. During play time, parents will notice a lot of banging, noise-making and imitating.

Spectator
This is the stage when the child is about two and a half year. The child begins to be on a lookout for people around him. A child may show interest on what other children are playing, however the child does not want to join in. A parent will know that the child is in this stage if the child shows interest by pointing or squealing at what others are doing.

Parallel
This stage typically occurs when the child is between two and a half and three years of age. The child may see another child playing and would sit down and play next to him. They are contented to play side by side even without interaction. The reason behind this behavior is that children at this age do not possess yet the skills necessary for playing together. The term cooperation is yet to be learned.

Associative Play
This stage occurs between the ages of three and four and this is the first category that children engage in strong social interaction during play. Furthermore, the child will start to see the benefit of playing with another child.

Cooperative Play
When the child reaches four years of age, he is ready to learn to play cooperatively with other kids. Typically, the play is structured and there is a one clear leader in the group. At times, conflict can raise and it can be easily resolved with less disruptive play. Also, in this stage, children interact and work together towards a common goal.

Modern schools believe that Parten's stages of play has greatly contributed to our understanding of play. It is widely used by parents and child psychology experts to understand children's development. By and large, play therapy is employed in children ages 3 to 11.

Play provides an opportunity for children to express their feelings, emotions and experiences through a natural, self-guided process. Encouraging play is very important because it helps children to communicate. It thus becomes a vital medium for children to recognize and acknowledge themselves and others.

Holiday Cottage Rental Is The Most Environment Friendly Holiday

Holiday at homein the UK – this will help to lower your carbon footprint. An airplane flight from London to Madrid consumes a quarter of your entire sustainable carbon year. This is the amount of fossil fuel each person may use in all aspect of their lifestyle over 12 months without contributing unduly to climate change. A flight from London to Sydney wastes two and a half times this ration. Trains are the best low carbon, long distance travel option by a long way. Going by ship is also not a bad idea. The fossil fuel factor for long distance voyages is minimal: Despite carrying 75 per cent of all world trades, shipping and rail added together produced 1.75 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions, while road transport produced 10.5 per cent.

According to statistics, the number of UK visitors to certain French regions has pushed sales up by 38 per cent, with many families going for camping trips or renting out holiday homes. This is excellent news for the environment as these are exactly the kind of people who would normally travel to far off destinations. In particular, the regions of Brittany and the Pyrenees have been shown to be very popular among British tourists seeking the French way of life.

As awareness of the environmental effects of long haul flights comes to attention, holiday properties closer to the UK are starting to become more popular. France, Germany, Belgium and Netherlands are well positioned to benefit from this demand. And indeed the demand for second properties in these regions will increase proportionately.

By staying locally and buying locally you can help to cut your carbon footprint. It is possible to find eco-friendly holidays, where you can stay on farms, and buy food at the local farmers market.

When holidaying in the UK, holiday cottages are an excellent safe bet for a place to stay, but if you travel further afield eg. into Europe then it makes sense to cut your carbon footprint by camping or staying in locally owned property. Better still consider staying in holiday parks in tents. These can be a great deal of fun and can give your family a fantastic experience.

Motorcycle Headlights: How To Ride Out Safely During The Winter

A bike leaves you open to the elements, and in the darkness of Winter you might only have the glow from your motorcycle headlights to keep you company, but it does not have to be grim.

Why do people usually think that biking in Winter is a no-no?

• You're not enclosed like in a car, so you can be battered with snow, rain, wind and whatever else the elements can throw at you. Depending on your clothing this could leave you cold and wet, which nobody likes.

• In the Northern hemisphere Winter usually means short days. Riding at night is not as safe because it is not as easy to spot bikes for other motorists at the best of times, and is especially hard in the dark.

• The wet weather means less grip for bikes which of course only have 2 wheels instead of a car's 4.

• Cleaning your bike is essential after almost every ride out as it's important to remove any grit and salt from the body as soon as possible, but who actually enjoys cleaning?

But it's not all doom and gloom. You can enjoy your bike all year round, but you must think about the following:

• Avoid snow and ice. Do not even try to ride on these surfaces. Riding a motorcycle is all about balance, but how are you going to balance a 100kg (or more) bike when it is slipping underneath you. Check the forecast and leave it at home if you have to.

• Dress well. Do not leave any exposed skin at all, the wind will find a way in! Make use of a full face helmet, neck warmer or scarf, thermal underwear and thicker trousers, jackets and gloves. If you check around there are all kinds of heated vests, gloves and socks available to if you're in a really cold environment!

• The faster you ride the colder you'll feel due to wind-chill, so take it into account if you're going a long distance.

• White lines are slippery when it's wet! Try to avoid riding on them as much as possible.

• It's true that you need to get salt and grit off your bike to avoid corrosion, but invest in a jet wash for an easy 5 minute clean. Then towel off the bike and cover it to keep it dry. Easy.

• Make sure that you're visible. New motorcycle headlights would be a plus, as with HID or LED motorcycle headlights you're benefitting with increased vision in the dark and can be seen coming ages before you round that corner. Also think about LED indicator and brake lights to make sure that you're bright from all angles.

Just think of the time and fuel money that you can save if you extend your ride beyond September? The message is just to be prepared with the right kit, expect the weather and make sure that your bike is ready for something a bit different!

Where is the best place to shop for new motorcycle headlights bulbs, clothing and accessories? It's got to be online. Have a check in a search engine and you'll find a wealth of stores selling everything from gloves to LED bulbs, and if you shop in the summer you should be able to get this Winter kit at a really good price as it's out of season .

How to Plan a Luxury Cruise Vacation

A luxury cruise vacation is something most of us dream about. Sailing the ocean under sunny skies, our every want and need anticipated by attentive staff, food and wine everywhere we look, not a worry in the world. Well, what's keeping you?

Three-quarters of the earth is covered by water. What better way to explore our planet than in style on a cruise ship? Today's luxury cruises run the gamut from small vessels that carry 8 or 10 passengers to giant ocean liners with every amenity you could imagine, and a few you could not.

If you want a smaller, more intimate luxury cruise, look into small-ship luxury cruises. These all feature the service you would expect at a 5-star resort. You'll use fine china for dining, eat outstanding cuisine prepared by highly-trained chefs, and enjoy a selection of activities and destinations.

The smallest luxury cruises are actually aboard chartered yachts, and you can have the ship all to yourself – or your group. Ships that sleep 34, 42, up to 80 can be chartered to travel at your whim.

However, there are several cruise lines that specialize in small-ship luxury cruises. Regent Seven Seas features four different luxury ships: the Seven Seas Voyager, Seven Seas Mariner, Seven Seas Navigator and the Paul Gauguin. The Seven Seas Mariner was the first all-suite, all-balcony cruise ship in the world and was such a hit she was quickly followed by the Voyager. Both the Voyager and the Mariner sleep up to 700 guests, while the Navigator can accommodate up to 490 travelers and the Paul Gauguin can travel with 330 guests.

Crystal and Cunard are two other cruise lines well-known for providing luxury on cruise vacations. Crystal's luxury liner the Crystal Serenity can accommodate 1,080 guests and typically sails in Europe and the South Pacific. However, she's scheduled for an around-the-world tour departing from Los Angeles in January of 2008 and arriving in Southampton, England, 110 days later.

Cunard Cruise Line was founded in Britain in 1838 and has been sailing successfully since then. They are well-known for both safety and luxury. Currently, the Cunard Line sails three luxury liners, the world-renamed Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2), the Queen Victoria, and the Queen Mary 2.

The immortal QE2 is 963 feet in length and can cruise with up to 1,778 guests aboard. She has logged 5.5 million nautical miles, carried over 2 million guests, and is still the fastest merchant ship in operation. Definitely one of a kind!

The Queen Mary 2 is one of the most magnificent ocean liners of all time. At 1,132 feet she can sail with up to 3,056 passengers in full luxury. Billed as "your sanctuary at sea", the accommodations and dining are first-rate. A luxurious ballroom, planetarium, and sports decks will all keep you occupied. The spa will relax you when you're all done.

Launching in December 2007, Cunard's Queen Victoria will sail her maiden voyage to New York. At 964.5 feet, she'll accommodate 1,980 passengers on 12 decks with typical Cunard service and cuisine.

There are many, many choices for luxury cruise vacations, but no matter which ship, line, or destination you choose, you'll remember that cruise for the rest of your life.